Understanding Human Sexuality 6th Edition By Janet Shibley Hyde – Test Bank
1. Which of the following is the concept sociobiologists use to describe “the process by which the individuals that are best adapted to their environment, survive, reproduce, and pass on their genes”?
A. sexual strategies
B. natural selection
C. environmental physiology
D. gender schemas
2. Sociobiologists believe that human sexual behaviours are primarily the result of
A. observational learning
B. personal experience
D. cultural influences
3. Which of the following supports the sociobiological theory of parental investment?
A. Fathers spend an equal amount of money on their genetic children and their current stepchildren.
B. Fathers spend more money on their genetic children than on stepchildren from past relationships.
C. Fathers spend less money on their genetic children than on their current stepchildren.
D. Fathers’ spending habits are entirely dictated by the Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
4. Which theoretical formulation has been criticized for an over-emphasis on reproduction?
C. social learning theory
D. script theory
5. Pair-bonding and attachment increase reproductive success. Which example illustrates these mechanisms?
A. A mother and father are emotionally involved and share finances.
B. A mother and her child have a loving relationship and the father provides finances.
C. A mother and father are emotionally involved and both have a loving relationship with the child.
D. A father and his child have a loving relationship and the mother provides stability.
6. Which of the following is a sexual strategy which would be considered an effective evolutionary psychological mechanism?
A. A male choosing a fertile female who appears unhealthy.
B. A male chooses a sexually available female for both short-term and long-term relationships.
C. A male choosing a sexually available female for a short-term relationship, but avoiding such females for a long-term relationship.
D. A female choosing a partner for the short-term relationship because of immediate resource availability but not considering the implication for the long term.
7. Some theorists suggest we may look at a partner’s physique and complexion to estimate their
A. social status
B. sexual experience
C. genetic structure
D. reproductive potential
8. According to sociobiology theory, homosexuality may be explained by which of the following?
A. The lack of sexual reproduction between homosexuals gives them the evolutionary advantage of having more resources available to themselves.
B. Homosexuality likely evolved to provide more care-giving individuals within a community.
C. Homosexuality likely evolved as a fourth sexual selection strategy in communities with an over-representation of one gender.
D. Because of its focus on reproduction, sociobiological theory cannot explain homosexuality.
9. A girl is impressed with her boyfriend’s ambition. She feels he will make a good husband and father. She accepts his proposal of marriage. This is an example of
A. sexual selection
B. natural selection
C. cognitive selection
D. social display
10. When a group of males at a party compete to catch the attention of one particularly beautiful and intelligent female, they are displaying a behaviour called
A. gender schema
C. sexual selection
D. parental investment
11. A married man who refrains from flirting with a female in front of his wife is being guided by his
D. pleasure principle
12. A psychology student studies the “wedding ring” effect, the idea that people who are already in a committed relationship seem to be more attractive to opposite-sex singles. Using the ideas in sexual strategy, why might this be so?
A. A person in a committed relationship must only want a sexual encounter, making them a good short-term partner and that is what both men and women desire.
B. A person in a committed relationship must have the qualities of a good long-term partner and that is what both men and women desire.
C. A man in a committed relationship would not be available, making him attractive to single women who generally desire a long-term partner only.
D. A woman in a committed relationship would not be available, making her attractive to single men who generally desire a short-term partner only.
13. Professor Smith is studying the sexual behaviour of a heterosexual couple. She is interested in how the behaviour of this couple evolved and how it is similar to the behaviour she observed last week in the monkeys in her backyard. The concept expressed here is part of the
A. sociobiological approach
B. social learning approach
C. mixed species approach
D. conflict approach
14. Professor Smith is studying a heterosexual couple’s sexual behaviour. She is interested in how the psychological mechanisms they used in choosing each other were shaped by natural selection. What approach is she using?
B. evolutionary psychology
D. learning theory
15. Susie and John are on a date at the zoo. During their visit to the wild cat sanctuary, they come upon a male and female lion mating. While they are giggling at the cats’ public display, Susie notices that she is becoming aroused. John, on the other hand, is experiencing no arousal except for some discomfort with the lion’s ongoing encounter. How might some researchers interpret Susie and John’s responses as a demonstration of natural selection?
A. Historically, men who have sex with felines do not reproduce; therefore, John is not sexually aroused by the sexual scene.
B. Susie has likely experienced sexual arousal to animals having sex in her past and is now conditioned to respond to the sexual scene.
C. Historically, finding humour in uncomfortable situations is a valuable trait to have in a mate; therefore, Susie is aroused by John.
D. Historically, women who had automatic physiological responses to a wide range of stimuli were more likely to survive; therefore, Susie is aroused by the sexual scene.
16. What term did Freud use to describe the sex drive?
D. evolutionary imperative
17. Which component of the personality operates on the reality principle?
A. the ego
B. the id
C. the superego
18. According to Freud, identification with the same-gender parent occurs at the conclusion of the stage of psychosexual development called the
A. anal stage
B. oral stage
C. genital stage
D. phallic stage
19. Which of the following is a popular criticism of Sigmund Freud’s work?
A. the idea that the unconscious cannot be studied scientifically
B. the idea that there are stages of sexual development
C. the “Inductor Theory of Primary Sexual Differentiation”
D. his forward thinking in terms of male and female equity
20. Let’s say you are a person who is willing to have sex with anyone, anytime, anyplace. According to Freud, you have an overactive
A. pituitary and hypothalamus
21. A weakness of Freud’s theory of psychosocial development was his belief that not much happened sexually during the
A. oral stage
B. latency stage
C. anal stage
D. genital stage
22. One of the main criticisms of Freud is that
A. he claimed children were sexual beings.
B. his data came from disturbed patients.
C. he suffered from acute depression himself.
D. the sample on which he based his findings was too large.
23. Neuropsychoanalysis research has provided support for Freud’s theories by showing that
A. the temporal lobe likely contains the ego.
B. the unconscious can be accessed with electrical stimulation.
C. parts of the limbic system are active during strange dreams.
D. parts of the frontal lobe are active during strange dreams.
24. In Freudian terms, a child who steals a cookie from the jar and then feels guilty has a
A. strong libido
B. strong id
C. weak superego
D. strong superego
25. A woman who constantly smokes cigarettes and chews gum would be said to be fixated at the:
A. phallic stage
B. genital stage
C. oral stage
D. penis envy stage
26. At around two years old, parents typically potty train their children. In Freud’s view, this behaviour is an example of what stage of development?
A. oral stage
B. phallic stage
C. genital stage
D. anal stage
27. Which of the following is NOT a feminist critique of how Freud viewed women’s psychosocial development?
A. Women are inferior because they do not have a penis.
B. A vaginal orgasm is more mature than a clitoral orgasm.
C. Women are the source of boys’ Oedipus complex.
D. There are differences between vaginal and clitoral orgasms.
28. Which is NOT one of Freud’s important contributions to sexuality?
A. making sex something the public could talk about.
B. showing that sex was an appropriate topic for scientific research.
C. showing that sex is a natural and inseparable part of human life.
D. his identification of the latency period of childhood.
29. The theorists/researchers who believe that all or almost all of our adult sexual behaviour is determined by our childhood experiences use which of the following approaches?
A. social learning
C. structural functional
30. Freudian psychoanalysts believe development ___________ whereas modern psychoanalysts believe development _______________.
A. ends in adolescence; is lifelong
B. is lifelong; ends in adolescence
C. is biological; is sociological
D. depends on parents; depends on genetics