Test Bank For Pathophysiology The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children 8th Edition

Test Banks for Pathophysiology – The Biological Basis for Disease in Adults and Children 8th Edition provides students with an invaluable tool when studying this important medical science. Test Banks are a collection of questions and answers based on the text, encompassing key terms and definitions as well as concepts that serve as a starting point in further learning.

Test Bank questions help reinforce understanding and knowledge retained from reading the textbook, providing additional insight into topics discussed, and allowing students to assess levels of comprehension and where improvement can be made.

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ISBN-13: 978-0323583473 ISBN-10: 9780323583473

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Test Bank For Pathophysiology The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children 8th Edition

The Test Bank for “Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children, 8th Edition” provides educators with a comprehensive set of assessment materials to evaluate their students’ understanding of the pathophysiologic basis for various diseases. Written by Kathryn L. McCance and Sue E. Huether, this book provides a detailed exploration of pathophysiology for adult and pediatric diseases, using a systems approach to enhance understanding of how pathophysiology affects overall body function.

The test bank includes a wide range of questions and assessments to evaluate students’ knowledge and understanding of the material. It includes multiple-choice questions, true/false questions, matching exercises, and fill-in-the-blank questions, along with critical thinking and clinical application questions. The test bank is organized by chapter and includes answer keys and rationales for each question to help instructors understand students’ thought processes and address common misconceptions.

The questions in the test bank cover all the key topics of pathophysiology, including cellular biology, genetics, inflammation, immune response, cardiovascular system, respiratory system, renal system, gastrointestinal system, endocrine system, reproductive system, and more. The test bank also includes questions on key concepts such as alterations in tissue perfusion, alterations in oxygenation, and alterations in fluid and electrolyte balance.

Chapter 1 – Cellular Biology   3

Chapter 2 – Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology Environmental Agents  16

Chapter 3 – The Cellular Environment Fluids and Electrolytes Acids and

Bases  28

  Chapter 4 – Genes and Genetic Diseases   41

Chapter 5 – Genes Environment-Lifestyle and Common Diseases  51

Chapter 6 – Epigenetics and Disease  59

Chapter 7 – Innate Immunity Inflammation  64

Chapter 8 – Adaptive Immunity  78

Chapter 9 – Alterations in Immunity and Inflammation  89

Chapter 10 – Infection  102

Chapter 11 – Stress and Disease  110

Chapter 12 – Cancer Biology  117

Chapter 13 – Cancer Epidemiology  129

Chapter 14 – Cancer in Children  135

Chapter 15 – Structure and Function of the Neurologic System  140

Chapter 16 – Pain Temperature Regulation Sleep and Sensory Function  151

Chapter 17 – Alterations in Cognitive Systems Cerebral Hemodynamics and

Motor Function  165

Chapter 18 – Disorders of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems and

the Neuromuscular Junction  179

Chapter 19 – Neurobiology of Schizophrenia Mood Disorders and Anxiety

Disorders  189

Chapter 20 – Alterations of Neurologic Function in Children  195

Chapter 21 – Mechanisms of Hormonal Regulation  202

Chapter 22 – Alterations of Hormonal Regulation  211

Chapter 23 – Obesity and Disorders of Nutrition NEW  223

Chapter 24 – Structure and Function of the Reproductive Systems  228

Chapter 25 – Alterations of the Female Reproductive System  237

Chapter 26 – Alterations of the Male Reproductive System  246

Chapter 27 – Sexually Transmitted Infections   252

Chapter 28 – Structure and Function of the Hematologic System  260

Chapter 29 – Alterations of Erythrocyte Platelet and Hemostatic Function  270

Chapter 30 – Alterations of Leukocyte and Lymphoid Function  280

Chapter 31 – Alterations of Hematologic Function in Children  287

Chapter 32 – Structure and Function of the Cardiovascular and Lymphatic

Systems  297

Chapter 33 – Alterations of Cardiovascular Function  309

Chapter 34 – Alterations of Cardiovascular Function in Children  323

Chapter 35 – Structure and Function of the Pulmonary System  331

Chapter 36 – Alterations of Pulmonary Function  341

Chapter 37 – Alterations of Pulmonary Function in Children  357

Chapter 38 – Structure and Function of the Renal and Urologic Systems  365

Chapter 39 – Alterations of Renal and Urinary Function  375

Chapter 40 – Alterations of Renal and Urinary Tract Function in Children  385

Chapter 41 – Structure and Function of the Digestive System  393

Chapter 42 – Alterations of Digestive Function  404

Chapter 43 – Alterations of Digestive Function in Children  415

Chapter 44 – Structure and Function of the Musculoskeletal System  424

Chapter 45 – Alterations of Musculoskeletal Function  436

Chapter 46 – Alterations of Musculoskeletal Function in Children  448

Chapter 47 – Structure Function and Disorders of the Integument  457

Chapter 48 – Alterations of the Integument in Children  468

Chapter 49 – Shock Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome and Burns in

Adults  476

Chapter 50 – Shock Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome and Burns in

Children  483

Pathophysiology The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children 8th Edition 97803235834

 Peroxisomes are so named because they usually contain enzymes that use oxygen to remove hydrogen atoms from specific substrates in an oxidative reaction that produces H2O2, which is a powerful oxidant and potentially destructive if it accumulates or escapes from peroxisomes. Ribosomes are RNA-protein complexes (nucleoproteins) that are synthesized in the nucleolus and secreted into the cytoplasm through pores in the nuclear envelope called nuclear pore complexes. Lysosomes are saclike structures that originate from the Golgi complex and contain more than 40 digestive enzymes called hydrolases, which catalyze bonds in proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates. An endosome is a vesical that has been pinched off from the cellular membrane. 

 

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 

 

  1. Which cell component is capable of cellular autodigestion when it is released during cell injury? 
    1. Ribosome 
    2. Golgi complex 
    3. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum 
    4. Lysosomes 

 

 

ANS: D 

The lysosomal membrane acts as a protective shield between the powerful digestive enzymes within the lysosome and the cytoplasm, preventing their leakage into the cytoplasmic matrix. Disruption of the membrane by various treatments or cellular injury leads to a release of the lysosomal enzymes, which can then react with their specific substrates, causing cellular self-digestion. The chief function of a ribosome is to provide sites for cellular protein synthesis. The Golgi complex is a network of flattened, smooth vesicles and membranes often located near the cell nucleus. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is involved in steroid hormone production and removing toxic substances from the cell. 

 

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 

 

  1. Which cAMP-mediated response is related to antidiuretic hormone? 
    1. Increased heart rate and force of contraction 
    2. Secretion of cortisol 
    3. Increased retention of water 
    4. Breakdown of fat 

 

 

ANS: C 

Antidiuretic hormone leads to increased retention of water in the body. Epinephrine causes increases in heart rate and force of contraction. Increased cortisol secretion is due to ACTH. Breakdown of fat is due to glucagon. 

 

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 

 

  1. During which phase of the cell cycle is DNA synthesized? 
    1. G1 

b. S 

c. G2 

d. M 

 

 

ANS: B 

Pathophysiology The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children 8th Edition 97803235834

 The four designated phases of the cell cycle are: (1) the G1 phase (G = gap), which is the period between the M phase (M = mitosis) and the start of DNA synthesis; (2) the S phase (S = synthesis), during which DNA is synthesized in the cell nucleus; (3) the G2 phase, during which RNA and protein synthesis occurs, the period between the completion of DNA synthesis and the next phase (M); and (4) the M phase, which includes nuclear and cytoplasmic division. 

 

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 

 

  1. What organic compound facilitates transportation across cell membranes by acting as receptors, transport channels for electrolytes, and enzymes to drive active pumps? a. Lipids 
    1. Proteases 
    2. Proteins 
    3. Carbohydrates 

 

 

ANS: C 

Proteins have several functions, including acting as receptors, transport channels for electrolytes, and enzymes to drive active pumps Lipids help act as the “glue” holding cell membranes together. Proteases cause the breakdown of protein. Carbohydrates are involved in cellular protection and lubrication and help produce energy via oxidative phosphorylation. 

 

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 

 

  1. Understanding the various steps of proteolytic cascades may be useful in designing drug therapy for which human diseases? a. Cardiac and vascular disorders 
    1. Autoimmune and malignant disorders 
    2. Gastrointestinal and renal disorders 
    3. Endocrine and gastrointestinal disorders 

 

 

ANS: B 

Understanding the various steps involved in this process is crucial for designing drug interventions. Dysregulation of proteases features prominently in many human diseases, including cancer, autoimmunity, and neurodegenerative disorders. Cardiac, vascular, gastrointestinal, renal, and endocrine disorders do not involve this process. 

 

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 

 

  1. Which structure prevents water-soluble molecules from entering cells across the plasma membrane? 
    1. Carbohydrate chains 
    2. Glycoprotein channels 
    3. Membrane channel proteins 
    4. Lipid bilayer 

 

 

ANS: D 

Pathophysiology The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children 8th Edition 97803235834

 The bilayer’s structure accounts for one of the essential functions of the plasma membrane. It is impermeable to most water-soluble molecules (molecules that dissolve in water) because the water-soluble molecules are insoluble in the oily core region. The bilayer serves as a barrier to the diffusion of water and hydrophilic substances while allowing lipid-soluble molecules, such as oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2), to diffuse through it readily. Carbohydrate chains, glycoprotein channels, and membrane channel proteins do not prevent water-soluble molecules from entering cells across the cell membrane. 

 

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 

 

  1. A student asks for an explanation of the absolute refractory period of the action potential. 

What response by the professor is best? 

    1. A stronger than normal impulse will evoke another response. 
    2. No stimulus is able to evoke another response at this time. 
    3. Multiple stimuli can produce more rapid action potentials. 
    4. The hyperpolarized state means a weaker stimulus produces a response. 

 

 

ANS: B 

During the absolute refractory state of the action potential, no stimulus is able to evoke another response from the cell. A stronger than normal impulse may generate a response in the relative refractory period. This period of time is not related to the number of stimuli. A hyperpolarized state means a stronger than normal stimulus would be needed to generate a response. 

 

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 

 

  1. Which form of cell communication is used to communicate within the cell itself and with other cells in direct physical contact? a. Protein channel (gap junction) 
    1. Plasma membrane-bound signaling molecules 
    2. Hormone secretion such as neurotransmitters 
    3. Extracellular chemical messengers such as ligands 

 

 

ANS: B 

Cells communicate in three main ways; they display plasma membrane-bound signaling molecules that affect the cell itself and other cells in direct physical contact with it, they affect receptor proteins inside the target cell, and they form protein channels (gap junctions) that directly coordinate the activities of adjacent cells. Neurotransmitters are released by neurons and cross the synaptic cleft to communicate with the cells they innervate. Ligands are involved in binding processes. 

 

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 

 

  1. Which mode of chemical signaling uses blood to transport communication to cells some distance away? a. Paracrine 
    1. Autocrine 
    2. Neurotransmitter 
    3. Hormonal 

 

 

ANS: D 

Pathophysiology The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children 8th Edition 97803235834

 Chemical signaling can be classified into three categories: (1) local-chemical mediator, (2) hormone, and (3) neurotransmitter. Hormones are released by one set of cells and travel through tissues or the bloodstream to another set of cells where they produce a response by those cells. In paracrine signaling, cells secrete local chemical mediators that are quickly absorbed, destroyed, or immobilized. Paracrine signaling requires close membrane-to-membrane contact. Paracrine signaling usually involves different cell types; however, cells also may produce signals that they, themselves, respond to, which is called autocrine signaling. Neurotransmitters are released by neurons and cross the synaptic cleft to communicate with the cells they innervate. 

 

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 

 

  1. Which mode of chemical signaling uses local chemical mediators that are quickly taken up, destroyed, or immobilized? a. Paracrine 
    1. Autocrine 
    2. Neurotransmitter 
    3. Hormone 

 

 

ANS: A 

In paracrine signaling, cells secrete local chemical mediators that are quickly taken up, destroyed, or immobilized. Autocrine signaling occurs when the target cells produce signals that they themselves respond to. Neurotransmitters are released by neurons and cross the synaptic cleft to communicate with the cells they innervate. Hormones are released by one set of cells and travel through tissues or the bloodstream to another set of cells where they produce a response by those cells. 

 

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 

 

  1. Neurotransmitters affect the postsynaptic membrane by binding to which structure? a. Lipids 
    1. Ribosomes 
    2. Amphipathic lipids 
    3. Receptors 

 

 

ANS: D 

In each type of chemical signaling, the target cell receives the signal by first attaching to its receptors. The other options do not correctly describe this process. 

 

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 

 

  1. How do cells receive communication from the extracellular fluid surrounding them? a. Protein channel (gap junction) 
    1. Plasma membrane-bound signaling molecules (involving receptors) 
    2. Hormone secretion such as neurotransmitters 
    3. Chemical messengers such as ligands 

 

 

ANS: D 

Pathophysiology The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children 8th Edition 97803235834

Signal transduction involves incoming signals or instructions from extracellular chemical messengers (ligands) that are conveyed to the cell’s interior for execution. The other options do not correctly describe how cells receive communication from the surrounding extracellular fluid. 

 

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 

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