Test Bank For Abnormal Child and Adolescent Psychology 8th Edition by Wicks-Nelson
CHAPTER 2 The Developmental Psychopathology Perspective
TRUE OR FALSE
1.The term paradigm refers to a shared perspective or cognitive set adopted, for example, by a group of investigators.
2.The adoption of a paradigm typically results in a broadening of the kinds of questions asked, measures taken, and interpretations made.
3.Another word for vulnerability is diathesis, as in the diathesis stress model.
- The biopsychosocial model is an example of the systems approach.
- Developmental theorists assume that human development proceeds in a coherent pattern.
- In the study conducted by Keller, Cumings and Davies (2005), parental problem drinking had a direct effect on child behavioral problems.
7.If treatment X is more effective for girls than boys, then gender could be considered a moderating variable.
8. If the effects of poverty operate through lack of health care to lower intellectual functioning, lack of health care mediates the relationship of poverty and intellectual functioning.
9.Brain abnormality is a necessary cause of schizophrenia. This does not mean that it is a sufficient cause.
10. According to the trajectories outlined by Compas, Hinden and Gerhardt (1995), adaptation level in childhood consistently predicts later functioning.
11.Multifinality is the principle that the same outcome can be associated with different pathways or factors.
12.In general, nonnormative events are considered more of a challenge to development than are normative events.
13. Attachment is an example of a developmental task for infants and preschoolers.
14. Resilience is defined as positive outcomes in the face of risk or threat.
15. Risk factors reside in both the environment and the person, but resilience factors reside exclusively in the person.
16.According to the model proposed by Ingram and Price (2010), resilience increases resistance to developing a disorder.
17.Heterotypic continuity of behavior is demonstrated when the same behavior continues over time in an individual.
18.Justine smiles and crawls to her mother. These behaviors facilitate attachment, according to Bowlby.
19.Early attachment experiences can influence later relationships.
20.Temperament is described as a person’s predisposition to irritability.
21.According to Chess and Thomas, temperament is malleable.
22.Inhibition is the one dimension of temperament that has been associated with academic adjustment.
- 23.Emotion and temperament can be considered the same construct.
24. Complex emotions such as shame or guilt are not evident until adolescence.
25. Although emotional knowledge is important in relationships later in life, it is not linked to social
problems in childhood.
26. The area of study that examines how individuals take in, understand, and interpret social
situations is called social cognitive processing.
- 27.Research indicates that children with high levels of aggressive behavior usually view other youngsters as passive and trusting.
- 28.A(n) ________ is a formal integrated set of principles or propositions that explain phenomena.
29. As a field of study, developmental psychopathology blends:
a.developmental and clinical psychology.
b.cognitive psychology and statistics.
c.medicine and neuroscience.
d.education and development.
30.Human development is best viewed as
a.always occurring in stages.
b.changes in individuals due to environmental influences.
c.change in persons over time due to the interactions of many variables.
d.quantitative rather than qualitative growth.
31.________________is another term for cause.
32.Which disease supported the medical model of mental illness in the early 1900s?
33. If a disorder occurs only in the presence of Factor X but only when Factor Y or Factor Z are present, we might suspect that Factor X is a _____ cause of the disorder.
a.necessary but not sufficient
b.sufficient but not necessary
c.necessary and sufficient
d.neither necessary nor sufficient
34. The Lansford et al. (2005) study found that African American children may respond differently to physical discipline than European American children. Therefore, which of the following is true?
a. Culture had a mediating effect.
b. Culture had a moderating effect.
c.Culture had no effect.
d.Culture is a sufficient cause.
35. Peter got along quite well as a child, but in adolescence he associated with a “bad” crowd, took drugs, and suffered academically. At 21 years of age, he appears to have put aside these behaviors and has successfully returned to college. Peter’s development is following which of the five adolescent developmental pathways described in the text?
c.Decline of adaptation
36. It has been shown that child abuse can lead to several different kinds of behavioral problems. This demonstrates the principle of
a.equifinality. c.cumulative continuity.
b.multifinality. d.excessive continuity.
37.Which term refers to the principle that different factors or developmental paths can result in the same developmental outcome?
a.Indirect causation c.Distal causation
a.can be biological, psychological, or social.
b.are best conceptualized as being mostly biological.
c.are best conceptualized as characteristics of the individual.
d.are best viewed as independent factors that do not affect each other.
39.In regard to the timing of risky experiences, the idea that early trauma may program a child’s biological reactivity to stressful events is linked to which of the following?
a.The sensitive period model
b.The developmental programming model
c.The life course model
d.The decline of adaptation model
40. In the Grant et al., (2003) model of the relationship between adversities and psychopathology, which of the following is a mediator?
a. Major life events
41.Which is most likely to be a nonnormative influence on the development of the present generation of U.S. adolescents?
a.Starting elementary school at about age 6
b.Severe childhood illness
c.Learning to drive an automobile during adolescence
d.Living in a culture concerned about violence
42.Resilience is best defined as
a.a person’s characteristics that protect him or her from negative outcomes.
b.characteristics of the environment that protect a person from negative outcomes.
c.one or more factors that work with risk factors to produce a disorder.
d.one or more factors that protect a person in the presence of risk factors for a disorder.
43.According to Masten and Coatsworth (1998), which of the following is a developmental task of middle childhood?
a.Developing an attachment to caregivers
b.Forming a cohesive sense of self identity
c.Differentiating self from environment
d.Rule governed conduct
44.The study of resilience conducted on Kauai revealed that resilience
a.was common despite the youth having numerous risk factors.
b.was impacted by personal attributes, family characteristics and support outside of the family.
c.was predicted primarily by personal attributes.
d.was predicted primarily by support outside of the family.
45. Billy and Kyle are both evaluated at a child assessment clinic at age 6. Billy comes from an affluent, loving and intact family. He is meeting all developmental tasks and is well adjusted. Kyle is living in poverty with his maternal grandmother after being abandoned by his parents. He is scoring in the clinically significant range on measures that test for behavioral problems. Years later, both boys are re-evaluated and both are found to be well adjusted and developing normally. Kyle reports that he became active in sports and was mentored by caring adults over the years. This is an example of
a. ordinary magic.
c.unstable, maladaptive development.