Test Bank For A History of Modern Psychology 5th Edition by C. James Goodwin

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ISBN-13: 978-1118833759 ISBN-10: 1118833759

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Test Bank For A History of Modern Psychology 5th Edition by C. James Goodwin

I. Multiple Choice

NOTE: The following items also appear in the online study guide that is available to students:

1, 10, 15, 20, 29, 42, 44, 48

1. Chapter 2 opens with the Ebbinghaus quote about psychology having a short past but a long history. What did Ebbinghaus mean?

a. he meant that it was important for psychology to break completely with philosophy in order

to become scientific

b. he meant that the issues of interest to psychologists could be traced to ancient times

c. he meant that psychology really has a lengthy history, but most people don’t remember any

of it so they believe that psychology has just a short history

d. he meant that most psychologists don’t appreciate the importance of studying psychology’s


2. Which of the following true about a heliocentric view of the universe?

a. it was rejected by Galileo on the basis of his telescopic observations

b. it assumes that the earth is at the center of the universe

c. it was the official view of the Church in the 17th century

d. it eventually replaced the geocentric view

3. Copernicus published his heliocentric view of the universe in 1543.  Another event occurred that year, which led one historian to consider 1543 to be the year when modern science was born. What was the other event?

a. Vesalius published his treatise on anatomy

b. Gutenberg invented the printing press

c. Harvey discovered that the heart acted like a pump

d. Galileo invented a telescope 

4. Sir Francis Bacon, who became a hero to B. F. Skinner, is known for advocating

a. submission to the legitimate authority of the Church

b. an inductive approach to knowledge, in which general principles are derived from

numerous observations

c. the idea that humans are mere machines

d. a deductive approach to knowledge, in which general principles based on Aristotle’s

authority would be used to deduce specific laws about how the world worked

5. Which of the following pairs is inappropriately matched?

a. Galileo—heliocentric

b. Bacon—inductive

c. Copernicus—geocentric

d. Harvey—circulatory system

6. In addition to his faith in an inductive approach to science, Bacon also believed that

a. science should play a role in controlling nature

b. basic science was good, but applied science was bad

c. scientists should conform to the wisdom of Aristotle

d. a thorough understanding of the universe could only be known theologically

7. Which of the following was not a part of the historical context of Descartes’ time?

a. there was the beginning of a gradual erosion of the authority of the Church

b. intellectuals were becoming disillusioned with the so-called progress resulting from

science and technology

c. there was a spirit of “mechanism,” exemplified by Harvey’s mechanical theory of the

circulatory system

d. there was growing faith in the value of observational methods as a way to understand

the world

8. What did Galileo and Descartes have in common?

a. they both questioned traditional authorities when arriving at a decision about the truth

of something

b. they both relied exclusively on inductive methods

c. both made their primary contributions to astronomy rather than psychology

d. their nearly simultaneous discovery of the reflex counts as a multiple

9. Descartes believed in which of the following statements?

a. the mind and the body are separate, but they operate in parallel (i.e., they do not

directly influence each other)

b. such ideas as “extension” are learned through the experiences of early childhood

c. the way to truth is through the use of one’s innate reasoning powers

d. the mind at birth is best described as a blank slate 

10. On the mind-body question, Descartes believed that

a. mind and body were two aspects of the same essence

b. mind and body were two distinct, noninteracting essences

c. mind and body were two distinct essences that interacted directly with each other

d. mind could be reduced to body (i.e., brain)—thus, he rejected dualism

11. Descartes’ first rule of method, as outlined in Discourse on Method, was to

a. recognize the important value of sensory information when seeking after truth

b. analyze problems into sub problems

c. collect as much inductive evidence as possible

d. recognize as truth only that which could not be rationally doubted

12. Descartes could be characterized as all of the following except

a. dualist

b. rationalist

c. nativist

d. materialist

13. Descartes is accurately described as all of the following except

a. a believer in mind-body interactionism

b. a rationalist

c. a believer in innate ideas

d. interested in the mind but not in the body

14. According to Descartes,

a. the mind can influence the body, but the body cannot directly influence the mind

b. the senses are faulty as mechanisms for acquiring knowledge

c. the nervous system acts essentially as an electrical system and its nerves “vibrate”

d. there are no innate ideas

15. According to Descartes,

a. mind and body interact at a place in the body that is not duplicated anywhere else,

namely, in the area of the heart

b. animals are pure machines; humans have bodies that are machines, but they also have

rational minds

c. the sensory and motor components of the reflex occur in two different sets of nerves

d. the ideas of self and God are learned through the experiences of early childhood

16. Descartes would consider knowledge of the concept of extension a(n) _____ idea, and the knowledge of how long a candle would burn a(n) ______ idea.

a. innate; derived

b. simple; complex

c. unassociated; associated

d. derived; innate

17. Descartes believed that

a. truth could be achieved only through the proper use of reason

b. mind and body are just two parallel ways of looking at the same fundamental essence

c. animals have minds; they just aren’t as advanced as ours

d. because he needed to satisfy basic physiological urges, he therefore believed he existed

(I drink, therefore I am)

18. The post-Renaissance model of the universe as a giant machine directly influenced

a. Harvey’s idea of how the heart worked

b. Descartes’ idea about how animals worked

c. Newton’s idea about how the planets worked

d. all of these 

19. According to the British Empiricist John Locke,

a. all our ideas derive from sensation and reflection

b. the mind is like veined marble at birth

c. simple ideas are innate; complex ideas derive from our experiences

d. a person blind from birth who had sight restored later in life would have no trouble

identifying and distinguishing (visually) a cube from a sphere

20. John Locke was the first major British Empiricist. He is associated with all of the following ideas except

a. the only important principles of association are spatial and temporal contiguity 

b. the only reality we can be sure of is our perception

c. there are two sources of ideas: sensation and reflection

d. the mind at birth is like a white paper

21. How would Locke explain why children are afraid of the dark?

a. they learn to be afraid, perhaps after being frightened by a maid

b. it is a “natural” fear that derives from our poor night vision

c. it is an innate idea that cannot be changed

d. they fail to use their reason to arrive at the truth about the dark

22. In his letters about educating the son of a friend, Locke recommended that

a. a sound mind requires a sound body—therefore keep the child safe, dry, and warm

and avoid having him get his feet wet

b. intelligence is innate, so only educate the child if he shows early signs of being bright

c. reinforcement should take a concrete form (e.g., candy)—mere commendation is not


d. physical punishment should be avoided, especially in young children

23. With which of the following statements would John Locke agree?

a. just because children have a concept of God early in life, that does not constitute

evidence that “God” is an innate idea

b. the primary qualities of matter (e.g., color) do not belong to the objects themselves,

but depend on perception

c. spare the rod and spoil the child

d. ideas that are universal from one culture to another (e.g., God) can be considered

innate ideas, but that is the only situation that produces innate ideas

24. John Locke would be least accurately described by which of the following terms?

a. atomist

b. empiricist

c. associationist

d. rationalist

25. The concept of atomism is reflected in which of the following statements?

a. association is to psychology as gravity is to physics

b. complex ideas can be reduced to simple ideas

c. primary qualities of matter have independent existence

d. nothing is in the mind that was not first in the senses

26. Berkeley extended Locke’s philosophy into a system that has been called subjective idealism or immaterialism. According to Berkeley’s system,

a. there are no secondary qualities of matter; everything is a primary quality

b. the greatest human value is to strive for a “subjectively ideal” world

c. we cannot be sure that matter exists when we aren’t perceiving it, except through our faith

in the Permanent Perceiver

d. our perception of the world results from the innate characteristics of the visual system;

learning isn’t involved very much

27. Newton’s concept of gravity is analogous to the British Empiricist concept of

a. sensation

b. a simple idea

c. a blank slate

d. an association

28. In An Essay Towards a New Theory of Vision, Bishop George Berkeley argued that 

a. the visual senses were unreliable as objective sources of knowledge; true knowledge

derives from reason

b. our visual system is designed to perceive depth and distance automatically (i.e., it is

mostly innate)

c. depth perception is purely and simply the result of our experiences with objects that

are at different distances from us

d. everything we perceive has a primary quality to it (i.e., it truly exists)

29. Berkeley’s philosophy has come to be called “subjective idealism” or immaterialism. He believed that

a. all knowledge is innate but dormant; we have to use our reason to get at the knowledge

b. the uncertainty of the physical world meant that God probably didn’t exist

c. our belief in the existence of the external world depends on our perception of it

d. we learn mostly through experience, but visual phenomena like depth perception are innate

30. The idea that all things could be described in physical terms and could be understood in light of the physical properties of matter and energy is called

a. rationalism

b. associationism

c. empiricism

d. materialism

31. According to Berkeley, our ability to perceive depth is partly the result of the manner in which the lens of the eye alters its shape to bring objects at different distances into focus. This lens-altering process is called

a. accommodation

b. a binocular depth cue

c. convergence

d. spatial contiguity

32. Berkeley would agree with all of the following statements except

a. we can have faith in the reality of objects through our faith in God, the Permanent


b. we can never come to believe that objects in the world have physical reality

c. we don’t see objects directly; we make judgments based on visual information and


d. the binocular cue of convergence is one of the ways in which experience leads us to

experience distance

33. David Hume proposed that ideas combine according to three laws of association. They were 

a. spatial contiguity, temporal contiguity, resemblance

b. resemblance, cause-and-effect relations, contiguity

c. temporal contiguity, cause-and-effect relations, spatial contiguity

d. contiguity, contiguity, and contiguity (i.e., he only believed in one basic law of


34. Hume said that ideas were faint copies of impressions. Hartley said essentially the same thing when he distinguished between

a. miniature vibrations and vibrations

b. vibrations and sensation

c. spatial and temporal contiguity

d. primary and secondary qualities of matter

35. Ed sees a picture of the Grand Canyon and immediately recalls his visit there. This is an example of which of Hume’s principles of association?

a. spatial contiguity

b. temporal contiguity

c. resemblance

d. cause and effect

36. In Hartley’s parallelist system, sensation is to idea as ______ is to ______.

a. perception; thought

b. simple idea; complex idea

c. vibration; miniature vibration

d. temporal contiguity; spatial contiguity

37. Jane flinches when she sees lightning, anticipating the loud noise. This has come about as a result of

a. temporal contiguity

b. cause-and-effect

c. spatial contiguity

d. resemblance

38. On the dimension of atomism-holism, which of the British philosophers was most on the holism side?

a. James Mill (Dad)

b. John Stuart Mill (Son)

c. David Hartley

d. John Locke

39. The James Mill quote about brick, mortar, walls, and houses illustrates which of the following concepts?

a. materialism

b. holism

c. atomism

d. innate ideas

40. John Stuart Mill was a child prodigy. With which of the following statements about his early ability would he be least likely to agree?

  a. some have it, some don’t (i.e., I was born smart)

b. if you work hard enough, you can accomplish a lot

c. I would not have accomplished anything if I had not been pushed by my father

d. experience is everything

41. How did John Stuart Mill’s (JSM) philosophy differ from that of James Mill (JM), his father?

a. JSM replaced his father’s mechanical metaphor with a chemical one

b. JSM reduced all association to contiguity; JM had a long list of laws of association

c. JSM believed in innate genius (after all, wasn’t he one?), while JM believed in the

conventional empiricism that held that knowledge results from experience

d. none of these—JSM elaborated on Dad’s ideas and wrote more coherently, but hedidn’t change any of his father’s ideas

42. James Mill’s model of the mind (exemplified by the quote about complex and duplex ideas in houses) could be described as _____; his son’s model was more of _______.

a. traditional empiricism; a rationalist system

b. mental chemistry; a mental mechanics

c. mental mechanics; a mental chemistry

d. rationalism; an empiricist system

43. The logic of the modern correlational method is essentially the same as Mill’s method of

a. agreement

b. difference

c. concomitant variation

d. cause and effect

44. Suppose you hypothesize that having a flower garden reduces stress. Using Mill’s method of agreement, you would hope to find that

a. everyone with a garden has low stress levels

b. everyone without a garden has high stress levels

c. both everyone with a garden has low stress levels and everyone without a garden has high stress levels

d. none of these

45. Suppose you hypothesize that having a flower garden reduces stress. Using Mill’s method of difference, you would hope to find that

a. everyone with a garden has low stress levels

b. everyone without a garden has high stress levels

c. both everyone with a garden has low stress levels and everyone without a garden has high stress levels

d. none of these

46. Suppose you hypothesize that having a flower garden reduces stress. Combining Mill’s methods of agreement and difference, you would hope to find that

a. everyone with a garden has low stress levels

b. everyone without a garden has high stress levels

c. both everyone with a garden has low stress levels and everyone without a garden has high stress levels

d. none of these

47. The gestalt psychologists argued that the whole was greater than the sum of its parts. The British philosopher closest in spirit to this idea was

a. John Locke

b. David Hume

c. David Hartley

d. John Stuart Mill

48. The French philosopher Leibniz argued that

a. animals are true “empirics” (blank slate at birth)

b. the human mind is more like veined marble than a blank slate, with the veins representing

our innate predispositions

c. both animals are true “empirics” (blank slate at birth) and the human mind is more like veined marble than a blank slate, with the veins representing our innate predispositions

d. none of these

49. The French philosopher Leibniz responded to Locke’s white paper metaphor by saying that the mind was more like veined marble. Leibniz was arguing that

a. humans are true “empirics”

b. the mind has innate properties that help shape experience

c. all basic human properties are fixed (i.e., innate) at birth

d. everyone has flaws

50. All of the following concepts are associated with the French philosopher Leibniz except

a. mind and body act in parallel with each other

b. the mind is like veined marble

c. animals are pure empirics

d. we have a priori knowledge of space and time

51. For Leibniz, the highest level of awareness was known as

a. sensation

b. apperception

c. perception

d. petite perception

52. What did Leibniz mean by the concept of a petite perception?

a. it was the same as a monad

b. it was a perception below the level of awareness 

c. it was the perception of any small object

d. it was the perception of any object that was available for perception for just a brief

period of time

53. Which of the following is inappropriately paired?

a. Hartley—contiguity

b. Leibniz—monad

c. Hume—veined marble

d. Berkeley—depth perception

54. Which of the following is appropriately paired?

a. Descartes—mind-body interactionism

b. Kant—levels of awareness from apperception through petite perception

c. Locke—mind is veined marble

d. Hume—all association is contiguity

55. What do Descartes, Leibniz, and Kant all have in common?

a. none were British philosophers

b. all were primarily rationalist philosophers

c. both alternatives a. none were British philosophers and all were primarily rationalist philosophers

d. none of these 


1. B 29. C

2. D 30. D

3. A 31. A

4. B 32. B

5. C 33. B

6. A 34. A

7. B 35. C

8. A 36. C

9. C 37. A

10. C 38. B

11. D 39. C

12. D 40. A

13. D 41. A

14. B 42. C

15. B 43. C

16. A 44. A

17. A 45. B

18. D 46. C

19. A 47. D

20. B 48. C

21. A 49. B

22. D 50. D

23. A 51. B

24. D 52. B

25. B 53. C

26. C 54. A

27. D 55. C

28. C

II. Short Answer

1. Distinguish between a heliocentric and a geocentric view of the universe.

2. What does it mean to say that Descartes was a dualist and an interactionist?

3. Descartes was taught in the scholastic tradition. What does this mean?

4. According to Descartes, how do humans differ from animals?

5. Distinguish between sensation and reflection as sources of ideas, according to Locke.

6. Most of the British empiricists are said to be atomistic. What does this mean?

7. What was the distinction made by Locke between primary and secondary qualities of matter?

8. As it affects perception, distinguish between convergence and accommodation.

9. What was Hume’s distinction between impressions and ideas?

10. What was Hume’s position on causality?

11. On the mind-body question, what is a parallelist position?

12. Identify and give examples of the two main forms of contiguity, according to Hartley.

13. Distinguish between Dad Mill’s mental mechanics and Son Mill’s mental chemistry.

14. Use the example of a wave to illustrate Leibniz’s concept of apperception and petite perception.

III. Essay

1. Describe the historical context that helped to shape Descartes’ ideas about mind and body.

2. Descartes’ rules of method, outlined in his Discourse on Method, seem straightforward and obvious to us today, but were revolutionary in his day. Explain, and show how the first sentence of this question could be considered an example of presentism.

3. Describe Descartes’ concept of the reflex and how he thought bodily movement was influenced by the mind. Show how these ideas were influenced by the contemporary zeitgeist.

4. With his model of nervous system functioning, how did Descartes explain memory?

5. Describe Locke’s rationale for rejecting the concept of innate ideas.

6. Describe Locke’s views on the education of children and show how they were consistent with his empiricism and similar to 20th century behaviorism.

7. Describe Berkeley’s subjective idealism and explain why he saw this philosophy as an assault on materialism.

8. Show how Berkeley’s subjective idealism is consistent with his ideas about how vision (e.g., distance perception) works.

9. Describe how experience would be expected to produce depth and distance perception, according to Berkeley.

10. Hume proposed three main principles of association. Use examples to describe each.

11. Modern psychology’s general concept of causality has been strongly influenced by Hume. Explain.

12. Hartley believed there was one basic principle of association. Give an example to show that you know what he meant by it. Distinguish between temporal and spatial versions of this principle.

13. Use a research example to relate Mill’s methods of agreement and difference to a modern experiment in psychology.

14. Contrast Locke and Leibniz on the nature-nurture issue.

15. Describe the Leibniz theory about levels of awareness.

16. Briefly describe Kant’s epistemology.


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